The fish population represents a common natural resource for all countries bordering the Black Sea. At the same time, among the natural richness of Romania and Bulgaria, aquaculture and fishery resources have occupied and still occupy another an important place among areas of national interest. In this context, one of the most important constituent parts of the fisheries patrimony is represented by the area occupied by the exclusive economic zone of the Black Sea.

At the same time, fishery was the sector most affected by the severe changes in ecosystems. Fishery, the lack of a common management system at the level of the entire sea basin, together with over-fishing, illegal fishing and the use of destructive fishing techniques have contributed to a continued decline of fish banks. The cross-border nature of these resources implies the need to adopt correlated positions on the exploitation and protection of the resources in order to ensure a sustainable development of the fishery sector. In order to ensure sustainable management, the adoption of the best decisions and the implementation of the best actions, the scientific approach of the environment elements in relation to the local activities is necessary.

At territorial level, fishing is an economic activity carried out mainly in predominantly rural communities, dependent on the sea and its resources, and the fishing practice by a part of the population of urban localities in the proximity of large fishing areas undermines the social, economic and cultural profile of the area.
Beyond the local level of this activity, fishing is an important economic activity with commercial valences.

The exploitation of the fishery resources in the natural aquatic basins is based on traditional catching methods conducted in areas beyond the 20 m isobath.
Fishing in Black Sea mainly depends on two major factors related to the availability of aquatic resources and the efficiency of organizing fishing and marketing activities.
From the point of view of the aquatic resources, it should be mentioned that the marine aquaculture in the Black Sea area does not benefit from a suitable geographical and meteorological context. The lack of coastal relief elements that form protected areas such as bays, strong winds, great waves and extreme temperatures in winter expose marine aquaculture units to risks on most of the Romanian Black Sea coastal part and only partially on the Bulgarian side.

At the same time, the competitiveness of the fishery production sector faces a number of challenges regarding the level of training of aquaculture and fishery personnel, and the equipping level of fisheries infrastructure, resulting in a demand outweighing by far the production possibilities of the sector.

Among the fish species with great commercial value, in the Black Sea Romania and Bulgaria share 5 species of sturgeon, all threatened to a greater or lesser degree by extinction, species which according to the legislation in the field can only be fished for scientific purposes or for obtaining juvenile fish for aquaculture and for population and repopulation of natural habitats.

The Marine Area of the Reservation of Danube Delta Biosphere is a traditional spawning and feeding area for cross-border species and also a passing route for certain species.

It is also known that an important fishing area is represented by the Reservation of Danube Delta Biosphere, where traditional fishing with fixed or drift gear is practiced.
A complementary activity to the fishery is represented by fish processing, as a traditional activity in the fisheries sector both on the Romanian and the Bulgarian territories, having an important role in the processing of the fish obtained by fishing and aquaculture for a better utilization of the raw material and for obtaining an extended range of fish products for consumers.

Therefore, it is necessary to pay increased attention to the degradation tendency of the Black Sea's natural resources, mainly of the fish stocks, to the poor cooperation of the Black Sea riparian countries on the optimization of resource management, to the lack of harmonization of existing regulations at different territorial levels, and between different states. The case study should focus on the need to harmonize fish stock assessment methods and tools, increase awareness among fishermen's organizations and decision-makers, standardize data and methodologies in relation to international practice and sizing fisheries in relation to the support capacity of existing ecosystems.